1 Moon Above 4 serial key or number

1 Moon Above 4 serial key or number

1 Moon Above 4 serial key or number

1 Moon Above 4 serial key or number

Islamic calendar

This article is about the Hijri calendar based on lunar observation. For the solar calendar whose first year is fixed to the Hijra, see Solar Hijri calendar. For the rule-based Hijri calendar, see Tabular Islamic calendar.
lunar calendar used by Muslims to determine religious observances

The Islamic calendar (Arabic: ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrīy), also known as the Hijri, Lunar Hijri, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the Hajj. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar, with Syriac month-names used in the Levant and Mesopotamia (Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine). Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar.[citation needed]

The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE.[1] During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H[2] from its Arabic form (سَنَة هِجْرِيَّة, abbreviated ھ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH ("Before the Hijra").[3]

As of September 2020[update] CE, the current Islamic year is 1442 AH. In the Gregorian calendar reckoning, 1442 AH runs from approximately 20 August 2020 to 9 August 2021.[4][5][a]


Pre-Islamic calendar[edit]

For central Arabia, especially Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they also record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs.[6]

The Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah, Hejaz, and Najd distinguished between two types of months, permitted (ḥalāl) and forbidden (ḥarām) months.[6] The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram.[6] A similar if not identical concept to the forbidden months is also attested by Procopius, where he describes an armistice that the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir respected for two months in the summer solstice of 541 AD/CE.[6] However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that literally means "postponement".[6] According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah,[7] by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants (pl. qalāmisa).[8]

Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed.[9] Some scholars, both Muslim[10][11] and Western,[6][7] maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation. This interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, and the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis.[12]

This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" (ns'’w) due to war. According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is also the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’.[6] The Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of [Nasī’] can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed."[13] The term "fixed calendar" is generally understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar.

Others concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant. This interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, and later by al-Biruni,[8][14]al-Mas'udi, and some western scholars.[15] This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation" (kabīsa). The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews.[7][8][14] The Jewish Nasi was the official who decided when to intercalate the Jewish calendar.[16] Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years; there is, however, no consensus among scholars on this issue.[17]

Postponement (Nasī’) of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, and scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni also says this did not happen,[14] and the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram. He also says that, in terms of the fixed calendar that was not introduced until 10 AH (632 AD/CE), the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, and so on.[14] The intercalations were arranged so that there were seven of them every nineteen years. The notice of intercalation was issued at the pilgrimage, the next month would be Nasī’ and Muharram would follow. If, on the other hand, the names relate to the intercalated rather than the fixed calendar, the second intercalation might be, for example, of a month between Muharram and Safar allowing for the first intercalation, and the third intercalation of a month between Safar and Rabi'I allowing for the two preceding intercalations, and so on. The time for the intercalation to move from the beginning of the year to the end (twelve intercalations) is the time it takes the fixed calendar to revolve once through the seasons (about 32 1/2 tropical years). There are two big drawbacks of such a system, which would explain why it is not known ever to have been used anywhere in the world. First, it cannot be regulated by means of a cycle (the only cycles known in antiquity were the octaeteris (3 intercalations in 8 years) and the enneadecaeteris (7 intercalations in 19 years). Secondly, without a cycle it is difficult to establish from the number of the year (a) if it is intercalary and (b) if it is intercalary, where exactly in the year the intercalation is located.

Although some scholars (see list above) claim that the holy months were shuffled about for convenience without the use of intercalation, there is no documentary record of the festivals of any of the holy months being observed in any month other than those they are now observed in. The Qu'ran (sura 9.37) only refers to the "postponement" of a sacred month. If they were shuffled as suggested, one would expect there to be a prohibition against "anticipation" as well. If the festivities of the sacred months were kept in season by moving them into later months, they would move through the whole twelve months in only 33 years. Had this happened, at least one writer would have mentioned it. Sura 9.36 states "Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months" and sura 37 refers to "adjusting the number of months". Such adjustment can only be effected by intercalation.

There are a number of indications that the intercalated calendar was similar to the Jewish calendar, whose year began in the spring.[18] There are clues in the names of the months themselves:

Rabi' I - first spring
Rabi' II - second spring
Jumada I - first month of parched land
Jumada II - second month of parched land
Sha'ban - Arabs "dispersed" to find water
Ramadan - scorched
Shawwal - female camels "raised" their tails after calving

In the intercalated calendar's last year (AD/CE 632), Dhu al-Hijjah corresponded to March. The Battle of the Trench in Shawwal and Dhu'l Qi'dah of AH 5 coincided with "harsh winter weather". Military campaigns clustered round Ramadan, when the summer heat had dissipated, and all fighting was forbidden during Rajab, at the height of summer. The invasion of Tabak in Rajab AH 9 was hampered by "too much hot weather" and "drought". In AH 1 Muhammad noted the Jews of Yathrib observing a festival when he arrived on Monday, 8 Rabi'I. Rabi'I is the third month and if it coincided with the third month of the Jewish calendar the festival would have been the Feast of Weeks, which is observed on the 6th and 7th days of that month.

Prohibiting Nasī’[edit]

Further information: Nasi'

In the tenth year of the Hijra, as documented in the Qur'an (Surah At-Tawbah (9):36–37), Muslims believe God revealed the "prohibition of the Nasī'".

The number of the months, with God, is twelve in the Book of God, the day that He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the right religion. So wrong not each other during them. And fight the unbelievers totally even as they fight you totally and know that God is with the godfearing. Know that intercalation (nasi) is an addition to disbelief. Those who disbelieve are led to error thereby, making it lawful in one year and forbidden in another in order to adjust the number of (the months) made sacred by God and make the sacred ones permissible. The evil of their course appears pleasing to them. But God gives no guidance to those who disbelieve.

The prohibition of Nasī' would presumably have been announced when the intercalated month had returned to its position just before the month of Nasi' began. If Nasī' meant intercalation, then the number and the position of the intercalary months between AH 1 and AH 10 are uncertain; western calendar dates commonly cited for key events in early Islam such as the Hijra, the Battle of Badr, the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Trench should be viewed with caution as they might be in error by one, two, three or even four lunar months. This prohibition was mentioned by Muhammad during the farewell sermon which was delivered on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10 (Julian date Friday 6 March, 632 AD/CE) on Mount Arafat during the farewell pilgrimage to Mecca.[citation needed]

Certainly the Nasi’ is an impious addition, which has led the infidels into error. One year they authorise the Nasi', another year they forbid it. They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared to be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane. Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth. In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve. Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive.

The three successive sacred (forbidden) months mentioned by Prophet Muhammad (months in which battles are forbidden) are Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram, months 11, 12, and 1 respectively. The single forbidden month is Rajab, month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar.[22][6][23][24][25]

Days of the Week[edit]

The Islamic days, like those in the Hebrew and Bahá'í calendars, begin at sunset. The Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers (see vesper), which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on "gathering day" (Yawm al-Jumʿah) which corresponds with Friday.

Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day off. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday (e.g., Egypt, Saudi Arabia) or Thursday and Friday as official weekends, during which offices are closed; other countries (e.g., Iran) choose to make Friday alone a day of rest. A few others (e.g., Turkey, Pakistan, Morocco, Nigeria) have adopted the Saturday-Sunday weekend while making Friday a working day with a long midday break to allow time off for worship.[citation needed]

No.NameArabicMeaningGregorian equivalent
1al-ʾAḥadٱلْأَحَد‎the OneSunday
2al-ʾIthnaynٱلْإِثْنَيْن‎the SecondMonday
3ath-Thulāthāʾٱلثُّلَاثَاء‎the ThirdTuesday
4al-ʾArbiʿāʾٱلْأَرْبِعَاء‎the FourthWednesday
5al-Khamīsٱلْخَمِيس‎the FifthThursday
6al-Jumʿahٱلْجُمْعَة‎the GatheringFriday
7as-Sabtٱلسَّبْت‎the RestSaturday


Four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred: Rajab (7), and the three consecutive months of Dhū al-Qa'dah (11), Dhu al-Ḥijjah (12) and Muḥarram (1).[26] As the lunar calendar lags behind the solar calendar by about ten days every Gregorian year, months of the Islamic calendar fall in different parts of the Gregorian calendar each year. The cycle repeats every 33 lunar years.[27]

No. Name Arabic Meaning Note
1al-Muḥarramٱلْمُحَرَّم‎forbiddenA sacred month, so called because battle and all kinds of fighting are forbidden (ḥarām) during this month. Muharram includes Ashura, the tenth day.
2Ṣafarصَفَر‎voidSupposedly named this because pre-Islamic Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food. Another account relates that they used to loot the houses of their enemies after defeating them in battle, leaving nothing behind.
3Rabīʿ al-ʾAwwal,
Rabīʿ al-ʾŪlā
رَبِيع ٱلْأَوَّل‎
رَبِيع ٱلْأُولَىٰ‎
the first springAlso means to graze, because cattle were grazed during this month. Also a very holy month of celebration for many Muslims, as it was the month the Prophet Muhammad was born.[28]
4Rabīʿ ath-Thānī,
Rabīʿ al-ʾĀkhir
رَبِيع ٱلثَّانِي‎
رَبِيع ٱلْآخِر‎
the second spring, the last spring
5Jumādā al-ʾAwwal,
Jumadā al-ʾŪlā
جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأَوَّل‎
جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأُولَىٰ‎
the first of parched landOften considered the pre-Islamic summer. Jumādā may also be related to a verb meaning "to freeze" and another account relates that water would freeze during this time of year.
6Jumādā ath-Thāniyah,
Jumādā al-ʾĀkhirah
جُمَادَىٰ ٱلثَّانِيَة‎
جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْآخِرَة‎
the second of parched land, the last of parched land
7Rajabرَجَب‎respect, honourThis is the second sacred month in which fighting is forbidden. Rajab may also be related to a verb meaning "to remove", so called because pre-Islamic Arabs would remove the heads of their spears and refrain from fighting.
8Shaʿbānشَعْبَان‎scatteredMarked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water. Sha‘bān may also be related to a verb meaning "to be in between two things". Another account relates that it was called thus because the month lies between Rajab and Ramadan.
9Ramaḍānرَمَضَان‎burning heatBurning is related to fasting as with an empty stomach one's worldly desire will burn. Supposedly so called because of high temperatures caused by the excessive heat of the sun. Ramaḍān is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast from pre-dawn until sunset and should give charity to the poor and needy.
10Shawwālشَوَّال‎raisedFemale camels would normally be in calf at this time of year and raise their tails. At the first day of this month, the Eid al-Fitr, "Festival of Breaking the Fast" begins, marking the end of fasting and the end of Ramadhan.
11Zū al-Qaʿdahذُو ٱلْقَعْدَة‎the one of truce/sittingThis is a holy month during which war is banned. People are allowed to defend themselves if attacked.
12Zū al-Ḥijjahذُو ٱلْحِجَّة‎the one of pilgrimageDuring this month Muslim pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafah takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on sunset of the twelfth, and this is a fourth holy month during which war is banned.

Length of months[edit]

Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle. Traditionally this is based on actual observation of the moon's crescent (hilal) marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month. Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. However, certain sects and groups, most notably Bohras Muslims namely Alavis, Dawoodis and Sulaymanis and ShiaIsmaili Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) in which odd-numbered months have thirty days (and also the twelfth month in a leap year) and even months have 29.

Prohibition of the name Ramadan[edit]

According to numerous Hadiths, 'Ramadan' is one of the names of God in Islam, and as such it is prohibited to say only "Ramadan" in reference to the calendar month and that it is necessary to say the "month of Ramadan", as reported in Sunni,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35]Shia[36][37][38][39][40][41] and Zaydi[42] Hadiths.

Year numbering[edit]

In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it. Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abraha, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia), attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants. The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephant, during which Muhammad was born (sura al-Fil). Most equate this to the year 570 AD/CE, but a minority use 571 CE.

The first ten years of the Hijra were not numbered, but were named after events in the life of Muhammad according to Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī:[43]

  1. The year of permission.
  2. The year of the order of fighting.
  3. The year of the trial.
  4. The year of congratulation on marriage.
  5. The year of the earthquake.
  6. The year of enquiring.
  7. The year of gaining victory.
  8. The year of equality.
  9. The year of exemption.
  10. The year of farewell.

In AH 17 (638 AD/CE), Abu Musa Ashaari, one of the officials of the CaliphUmar in Basrah, complained about the absence of any years on the correspondence he received from Umar, making it difficult for him to determine which instructions were most recent. This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should be the year of Muhammad's arrival at Medina (known as Yathrib, before Muhammad's arrival).[44]Uthman ibn Affan then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi' I of the intercalated calendar, two months before the commencement of Muharram in the new fixed calendar.[2] Because of the Hijra, the calendar was named the Hijri calendar.

F A Shamsi (1984) postulated that the Arabic calendar was never intercalated. According to him, the first day of the first month of the new fixed Islamic calendar (1 Muharram AH 1) was no different from what was observed at the time. The day the Prophet moved from Quba' to Medina was originally 26 Rabi' I on the pre-Islamic calendar.[45] 1 Muharram of the new fixed calendar corresponded to Friday, 16 July 622 AD/CE, the equivalent civil tabular date (same daylight period) in the Julian calendar.[46][47] The Islamic day began at the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July. This Julian date (16 July) was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own tabular Islamic calendar, which had alternating 30- and 29-day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years. For example, al-Biruni mentioned this Julian date in the year 1000 AD/CE.[48] Although not used by either medieval Muslim astronomers or modern scholars to determine the Islamic epoch, the thin crescent moon would have also first become visible (assuming clouds did not obscure it) shortly after the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July, 1.5 days after the associated dark moon (astronomical new moon) on the morning of 14 July.[49]

Though Cook and Crone in Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World cite a coin from AH 17, the first surviving attested use of a Hijri calendar date alongside a date in another calendar (Coptic) is on a papyrus from Egypt in AH 22, PERF 558.

Astronomical considerations[edit]

Due to the Islamic calendar's reliance on certain variable methods of observation to determine its month-start-dates, these dates sometimes vary slightly from the month-start-dates of the astronomical lunar calendar, which are based directly on astronomical calculations. Still, the Islamic calendar seldom varies by more than three days from the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, and roughly approximates it. Both the Islamic calendar and the astronomical-lunar-calendar take no account of the solar year in their calculations, and thus both of these strictly lunar based calendar systems have no ability to reckon the timing of the four seasons of the year.

In the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, a year of 12 lunar months is 354.37 days long. In this calendar system, lunar months begin precisely at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located most directly between the Earth and the Sun. The month is defined as the average duration of a revolution of the Moon around the Earth (29.53 days). By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days. This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 minutes to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours (i.e., the equivalent of one full day) in 2.73 years. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar every four years.[50] The technical details of the adjustment are described in Tabular Islamic calendar.

The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions being used for the determination of the month-start-dates.[51] Each month still has either 29 or 30 days, but due to the variable method of observations employed, there is usually no discernible order in the sequencing of either 29 or 30 day month lengths. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries. Still, due to the fact that both lunar reckoning systems are ultimately based on the lunar cycle itself, both systems still do roughly correspond to one another, never being more than three days out of synchronisation with one another.

Clerics observe the moon.

This traditional practice for the determination of the start-date of the month is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries. Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon (or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days) before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory. But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 17 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters.[52] Given the fact that the moon sets progressively later than the sun as one goes west, with a corresponding increase in its "age" since conjunction, Western Muslim countries may, under favorable conditions, observe the new moon one day earlier than eastern Muslim countries. Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, during the 48 hour period following the conjunction. The information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month.

A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months. Thus, Malaysia, Indonesia, and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset). In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun. A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do. In some instances, what a country says it does is impossible.[53][54]

Due to the somewhat variable nature of the Islamic calendar, in most Muslim countries, the Islamic calendar is used primarily for religious purposes, while the Solar-based Gregorian calendar is still used primarily for matters of commerce and agriculture.

Theological considerations[edit]

If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today. But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so.[55]

A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations (beyond the constraint that each month must be not less than 29 nor more than 30 days) on the grounds that the latter would not conform with Muhammad's recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months.[56][57][b]

However, some jurists see no contradiction between Muhammad's teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months.[58] They consider that Muhammad's recommendation was adapted to the culture of the times, and should not be confused with the acts of worship.[59][60][61]

Thus the jurists Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Yusuf al-Qaradawi both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in 1939 and 2004 respectively.[62][63] So did the Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA) in 2006[64][65] and the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) in 2007.[66][67]

The major Muslim associations of France also announced in 2012 that they would henceforth use a calendar based on astronomical calculations, taking into account the criteria of the possibility of crescent sighting in any place on Earth.[68][69] But, shortly after the official adoption of this rule by the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM) in 2013, the new leadership of the association decided, on the eve of Ramadan 2013, to follow the Saudi announcement rather than to apply the rule just adopted. This resulted in a division of the Muslim community of France, with some members following the new rule, and others following the Saudi announcement.

Isma'ili-Taiyebi Bohras having the institution of da'i al-mutlaq follow the tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) prepared on the basis of astronomical calculations from the days of Fatimidimams.

Astronomical 12-moon calendars[edit]

Islamic calendar of Turkey[edit]

Turkish Muslims use an Islamic calendar which is calculated several years in advance by the Turkish Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı). From 1 Muharrem 1400 AH (21 November 1979) until 29 Zilhicce 1435 (24 October 2014) the computed Turkish lunar calendar was based on the following rule: "The lunar month is assumed to begin on the evening when, within some region of the terrestrial globe, the computed centre of the lunar crescent at local sunset is more than 5° above the local horizon and (geocentrically) more than 8° from the Sun." In the current rule the (computed) lunar crescent has to be above the local horizon of Ankara at sunset.[70]

Saudi Arabia's Umm al-Qura calendar[edit]

Saudi Arabia uses the sighting method to determine the beginning of each month of the Hijri calendar. Since AH 1419 (1998/99), several official hilal sighting committees have been set up by the government to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the beginning of each lunar month. Nevertheless, the religious authorities also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see it.

The country also uses the Umm al-Qura calendar, based on astronomical calculations, but this is restricted to administrative purposes. The parameters used in the establishment of this calendar underwent significant changes during the decade to AH 1423.[71][72]

Before AH 1420 (before 18 April 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in Riyadh was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month. This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca.

For AH 1420–22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed).

Since the beginning of AH 1423 (16 March 2002), the rule has been clarified a little by requiring the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca. This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent.

In 2007, the Islamic Society of North America, the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research announced that they will henceforth use a calendar based on calculations using the same parameters as the Umm al-Qura calendar to determine (well in advance) the beginning of all lunar months (and therefore the days associated with all religious observances). This was intended as a first step on the way to unify, at some future time, Muslims' calendars throughout the world.[73]

Since 1 October 2016, as a cost-cutting measure, Saudi Arabia no longer uses the Islamic calendar for paying the monthly salaries of government employees but the Gregorian calendar.[74][75]

Other calendars using the Islamic era[edit]

The Solar Hijri calendar is a solar calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan which counts its years from the Hijra or migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD/CE.[76]

Tabular Islamic calendar[edit]

The Tabular Islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar, in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation. It has a 30-year cycle with 11 leap years of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days. In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2,500 solar years or 2,570 lunar years. It also deviates up to about one or two days in the short term.

Kuwaiti algorithm[edit]

Microsoft uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm", a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar,[77] to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones. Microsoft claimed that the variant is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from Kuwait, however it matches a known tabular calendar.

Notable dates[edit]

Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:

Days considered important predominantly for Shia Muslims:

Converting Hijri to Gregorian date or vice versa[edit]

Civil and Hijri establishment dates of a library in Old City, Jerusalem

Conversions may be made by using the Tabular Islamic calendar, or, for greatest accuracy (one day in 15,186 years), via the Jewish calendar. Theoretically, the days of the months correspond in both calendars if the displacements which are a feature of the Jewish system are ignored. The table below gives, for nineteen years, the Muslim month which corresponds to the first Jewish month.

Year AD/CEYear AH Muslim
Year AD/CEYear AH Muslim

This table may be extended since every nineteen years the Muslim month number increases by seven. When it goes above twelve, subtract twelve and add one to the year AH. From 412 AD/CE to 632 AD/CE inclusive the month number is 1 and the calculation gives the month correct to a month or so. 622 AD/CE corresponds to BH 1 and AH 1. For earlier years, year BH = (623 or 622) – year AD/CE).

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Chemistry in its element: selenium

You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Hello, this week flaky scalps, skunks, dead polo ponies and an element that makes you stink of garlic. Yum! But it's not all bad news.
We know selenium is there, right under sulfur, in the periodic table, but it doesn't get much attention. The inorganic chemistry textbooks that I studied from talk extensively about sulphur and, where appropriate, say things like 'selenium also forms similar acids', or 'selenium also has many allotropic forms'. How slighted is this important element!
When I was in my early 20s I developed a dry scalp condition for a few years, probably a result of anxiety over research grants I was trying to obtain. The treatment for this was a shampoo containing selenium sulphide, surprising to me because I thought that selenium was highly toxic. In fact a little investigation showed me that it was perfectly safe in small amounts.
Selenium is one of those all too common elements that is essential to life in small quantities, and very toxic in larger quantities. 400 micrograms per day is set as the safe upper intake level in humans. But we require it as part of various enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, as well as in the thyroid. It is widespread, and accumulated in various foods, such as nuts, tuna, and lobster, so it is rare for humans to have a selenium deficiency. But for horses, with their more limited diet, selenium deficiency is common and often corrected with dietary supplements. Again, this requires great care. Recently 21 polo horses died from selenium overdose in Florida, the result of a veterinary pharmacist overdoing it in mixing the drugs.
It was Berzelius who discovered selenium in 1817, as an impurity in sulphuric acid. Tellurium had already been discovered, and named after the Greek word for earth, so he named selenium using the Greek word for moon, selene. It occurs in various minerals, together with sulphur as you would expect. We know its evolution in plants goes back a long ways, because we find selenium compounds in coals, and much of what is released into the atmosphere today comes from coal burning. Indeed, the toxicity level of selenium to humans was established only 20 years ago by studies of Chinese victims of selenium poisoning, selenosis, who grew corn on selenium rich coal rocks. Selenosis has some lovely symptoms: a garlic odor on the breath, hair loss, sloughing of nails, fatigue, irritability, and eventually cirrhosis of the liver and death. It is the selenates and selenites that are the most toxic, since the elemental selenium is not readily incorporated into biological processes.
While some of the allotropic forms of selenium resemble those that we know well from study of sulphur, there are others that are different. Most important, so called gray selenium consists of long chains of atoms forming extended helical structures. While selenium is not a metallic element, gray selenium is a good photoconductor, and was used in early photocells. Subsequently, selenium and various selenium compounds have been used in a variety of photoconductor and photovoltaic applications. Indeed, the newest and most promising class of mass produced solar cells are copper indium gallium selenide. At one time virtually all copying machines used selenium ; this has now been largely replaced by organic photoconductors.
But the diversity of uses of selenium does not stop with shampoo and horse food supplements and photovoltaics. Selenium is added to synthetic rubber to improve resistance to abrasion, it has been added to brass, along with bismuth, to replace lead in pipes, and it is used, as sodium selenate, as an insecticide to stop attacks on flowering plants such as chrysanthemums and carnations. Selenium in its allotropic red form is added to glass to give it a scarlet color, but it also can be used to remove the greenish tint sometimes found in glass due to iron compounds.
There have been numerous studies, none of them very conclusive, about the possible role of selenium in cancer prevention, and in increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy. Most of these seem to indicate that if it is effective at all, it works somehow in conjunction with vitamin E, which, like selenium, plays an antioxidant role in the body. Also intriguing to me was a recent study indicating that selenium deficient soils may play a role in susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Africa. The rationale is that low selenium levels are associated with weakened immune systems, since with lack of antioxidant capacity there is stress on the immune system.
But I save the best occurrence of selenium in nature for last. Butyl seleno mercaptan is the essential ingredient of skunk smell, and is certainly a contender for the title of the worst smelling compound. Once you have smelled it you will never forget it, nor underestimate the impact that this interesting element can have.
So it can clear up an itchy scalp but it might make you stink in the process. That was Cambridge University's Bernie Bulkin with the story of Selenium. Next week we're visiting the element that Superman made famous.
Krypton is a fictional planet in the DC Comics universe, and the native world of the super-heroes Superman, Supergirl, and Krypto the "super dog". Krypton has been portrayed consistently as having been destroyed just after Superman's flight from the planet, with exact details of its destruction varying by time period, writers and franchise.
So much for trying to do a "wikipedia" search for this "hidden" element!
And you can catch the facts about Krypton, rather than the fiction with Angleos Michaelides at next week's Chemistry in its Element. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening and goodbye.
Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists.com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its element on our website at chemistryworld.org/elements.
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Grandfather Clock Owners and Setup Guide

Learn more about your clock or how floor clocks work. This guide is designed to better understand your floor clock and it's operations.

If you wish to view our selections of Grandfather Clocks and Floor clocks, click the following link.
click here for our full selection of Grandfather Clocks


The product information label lists the Grandfather Clock model number and serial number. The Grandfather Clock model number and serial number are essential for obtaining parts or service. The product information label may be located in several locations: outside the shipping carton, back of door, back of the Grandfather Clock, top of the Grandfather Clock, inside the top back corner of the Grandfather Clock, or inside the Grandfather Clock above the back of the dial. For easy reference in the future, take a moment to record these numbers.


At the heart of every Grandfather Clock is the movement. The movement controls the hour strike, time keeping, and chime. The pendulum and weights are critical components to operation of the Grandfather Clock movement. The pendulum provides the ability to regulate and adjust the time keeping. As described within these instructions, adjustments to the pendulum to achieve accurate time keeping is easily accomplished. The three weights provide power to the hour strike (left weight), time (center weight), and chime melody (right weight). Without these weights, the Grandfather Clock would not operate. Each weight is different and must be properly hung from the movement (left, center, right) to ensure proper operation. Weights are hung from the movement by a cable or chain. The weights must be raised at least every 7 days or the Grandfather Clock will stop. Raising cable driven weights is accomplished through use of a crank. Raising chain driven weights is accomplished by pulling down on the loose end of the chain. The strike and chime sounds are made by a series of hammers hitting various length rods. Each rod makes a different sound when hit by a hammer. Specific chime melodies are achieved by controlling the sequence that each hammer hits a corresponding rod.

Grandfather Clock Instructions



Setting Up Your Grandfather Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Leveling Your Grandfather Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Hanging Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Hanging Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Setting Moon Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Setting Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

Starting Grandfather Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7


Product Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Moving Your Grandfather Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Installing / Removing Top Side Panel . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Raising Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Regulating Timekeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Automatic Night-Time Silencing Option . . . . . . . . . . .13

Chime Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14


Difficulty Turning The Moon Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Grandfather Clock Does Not Chime At Proper Time . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Grandfather Clock Does Not Strike The Correct Hour . . . . . . . . . . 17

Grandfather Clock Will Not Chime or Strike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Chimes Have The Incorrect Tone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Weights Do Not Drop At The Same Level. . . . . . . . . . .20


Unboxing Your New Grandfather Clock:
a) Cut the nylon bands around the shipping carton and open the box from both side.
b) Remove the box from on top of the clock. This will contain your product manual.
c) Remove the cardboard side supports inside the carton.
d) Remove the Grandfather Clock pendulum packaged in a separate tall, thin cardboard box.
e) Slide the clock out of either one of the sides of the box.
f) Carefully "walk" the clock off of the cardboard bottom support once out of the box.

Located in the bottom of the shipping carton will be a white styrofoam box. This box contains:
a) a key to fit your Grandfather Clock door,
b) a crank which will be used to wind your Grandfather Clock and,
c) weights which operate the Grandfather Clock movement.
Also, within the shipping carton will be the Grandfather Clock pendulum packaged in a separate cardboard box.
Move the Grandfather Clock close to its final location. 
Access to the Grandfather Clock movement, chimes and cables is made in three possible ways; through the front door(s), through the top side panels (or side doors
on some Grandfather Clocks), or through the back access panel. The top side panels are held from the inside by tape or a plastic clip. The plastic clip may be turned
or tape may be removed permanently. Refer to the General Information section in section 10 for proper instructions to remove and install top side panels.
Remove the cardboard sleeve from around the chime rods by first cutting the rubber band with scissors. DO NOT PULL ON THE RUBBER BAND TO BREAK. Next, grasp the cardboard sleeve as marked and pull straight down and off the ends of the chime rods. (See figure 1).  Remove the foam pads from between the chime hammers and chime rods by first cutting the rubber band with scissors. DO NOT PULL ON THE RUBBER BAND TO BREAK. Care should be taken to avoid bending the chime hammers. The chime hammers will be free to move allowing easy removal of the foam pads.  Remove the spring clip from the back side of the movement by first pulling one end free. (See figure 1).

If there is a long cardboard sleeve and no rubber bands, simply pull down slowly on the cardboard sleeve from the front of the clock and the packing will release on it's own. Then pull out the foam behind the chime hammers and you have completed this step.

 DO NOT REMOVE THE STYROFOAM BLOCKS from above the cable pulleys. This is one of the most critical points in the entire set-up operation. Doing so at this time could cause the cables to overlap and bind the movement. You can remove the styrofoam blocks AFTER your Grandfather Clock is totally set up and has been operating for about twelve (12) hours or when they are completely free to remove.


Position the Grandfather Clock into its final location. Once in place, your Grandfather Clock cabinet
must be leveled, as the Grandfather Clock may not operate if it is not level. There are four levelers under the cabinet on each corner that can be screwed in (up) or
out (down) to make adjustments. Place a level alongside the Grandfather Clock cabinet from front to back and side to side, adjusting the levelers until level. It may be necessary to periodically check your cabinet after initial set-up, (especially if the Grandfather Clock is on carpet), as it might settle after original leveling. (see figure 2). Ensure Grandfather Clock is positioned square and firm on the floor so that
it will not fall over.



NOTE: To perform the following steps Howard Miller suggests wearing cotton gloves or using a soft cloth when handling parts.

Some pendulums have a colored protective plastic film covering the pendulum disk. Carefully remove this film before hanging the pendulum. To hang the pendulum, locate the pendulum guide through the front door, or
any of the side or back access panel locations. While holding the pendulum guide with one hand, slip the pendulum in through the front door with your other hand. Place the pendulum hook over the pin or through the slot on the pendulum guide, and lower the pendulum until it is hanging securely on the pendulum guide. (See figure 3).


DO NOT REMOVE THE STYROFOAM BLOCKS until after your Grandfather Clock has been operating for at least twenty-four (24) hours. Most Grandfather Clocks use three weights. The bottom of each weight is labeled Left, Center or Right facing the Grandfather Clock. The total weight of each weight is slightly different and each WEIGHT MUST BE INSTALLED IN ITS CORRECT LOCATION FOR THE Grandfather Clock TO OPERATE PROPERLY. Check the weights to ensure that they are tightly assembled. Check to make sure that the cable is in the cable pulley. Hang the weights on the pulleys. (See figure 4).


If your Grandfather Clock has a moving moon dial feature, follow these instructions. To set moon dial, apply slight pressure with your fingers to the front of the moon dial. Rotate the moon dial Clockwise until the moon is directly below #15. (See figure 5). If the moon dial will not rotate, wait 6 hours and try again. Never force the moon dial as it should move easily.  Using an almanac or calendar, determine the date of the last full moon. Count the number of days past the last full moon. Turn the moon dial Clockwise one click for every day past the full moon. The moon dial is now set and will indicate the proper moon phases as long as the Grandfather Clock operates continuously. If the Grandfather Clock stops for more than 24 hours, the moon dial will also stop, and must be reset when the Grandfather Clock is started again.


6. SETTING TIME (moving the hands)To set the time, move ONLY THE MINUTE HAND counter Clockwise (backwards) until hour and minute hand are at the correct time. (See figure 6). DO NOT MOVE THE HOUR HAND WHEN SETTING THE TIME. The hour hand will move automatically when the minute hand is moved. By moving the minute hand counter Clockwise it is not necessary to wait for the Grandfather Clock to chime as the minute hand passes each quarter hour. (See figure 6). The movement has a self correcting feature which synchronizes the chimes with the time. If after setting the Grandfather Clock on time, it does not chime properly, permit it to operate 2 hours to correct itself.
CAUTION ON MOVEMENTS WITH AUTOMATIC CHIME SEQUENCING: The chime selection lever should not be in the “Auto” position when moving the hands. Moving the hands in either the Clockwise or counter Clockwise direction while the automatic chime sequencing is in operation could damage the chime mechanism.



Reach through the front door of the Grandfather Clock and place your hand on the side of the pendulum disk. Move the pendulum to the far left of center and release. Let the Grandfather Clock operate a few minutes until the pendulum settles into an even swinging motion. (See figure 7). If your Grandfather Clock gains or looses time after twenty-four (24) hours, see General Information Section to regulate the timekeeping of your Grandfather Clock. After the Grandfather Clock has run for at least twenty-four (24) hours, remove the styrofoam blocks by lifting the blocks straight up until they clear the cable pulley. Then gently push them back, through the cables.


General Information

8. PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELThe product information label identifies the Grandfather Clock model number and serial number. The Grandfather Clock model number and serial number are essential for obtaining parts or service. The product information label is located in several locations: outside the shipping carton, back of door, back of the Grandfather Clock, top of the Grandfather Clock, inside the top back corner of the Grandfather Clock, or inside the Grandfather Clock above the back of the dial. Refer to this label when contacting your dealer or Howard Miller. For easy reference in the future, take a moment to record these numbers in the space provided in the Service Information Section (page 12.) Attach your sales receipt to this manual for future reference.


Care should be taken whenever you move your Grandfather Clock to insure that all accessory parts such as the pendulum and weights are removed and packed properly to prevent damage. NEVER wind a cable drive movement without weights installed.


Your Grandfather Clock may have wood or glass top side panels. When removed, you have access to the Grandfather Clock movement and chime area. The panels may be held in place during shipment by tape or a plastic clip. In order to remove the panel, reach in through the front door and turn the plastic clip or remove the tape. Then follow these steps: 1. Grasp the wood slats or knob with the tips of your fingers. Be careful not to push on the grill cloth or glass as you might separate it from the wood top side panel. 2. Lift the top side panel up. It rests in a groove on the bottom edge. 3. Push the bottom edge of the top side panel toward the center of the case while at the same time, pull the top edge down and out of the groove in the top of the opening. 4. Tilt the top edge of the top side panel toward the case center. 5. Remove the top side panel from frame opening, bottom end first. When installing wooden or glass top side panels reverse steps 1 thru 5.


The weights must be raised every seven (7) days or the Grandfather Clock will stop.  Cables with pulleys: Weights that are suspended by cables with pulleys should be raised by using the crank provided. DO NOT lift the weights by hand while cranking. Insert the crank into the crank holes located in the dial face (See figure 15), and turn the crank counter Clockwise. This will raise the weights. You cannot overwind the Grandfather Clock and the weights need to be near the top to run the Grandfather Clock for 7 days.
Be sure to remove the crank before shutting the door.


Changing the speed of time keeping is accomplished by moving the pendulum disk up or down. The pendulum disk is moved up or down by turning the adjustment nut.
To slow the Grandfather Clock down,
move the pendulum disk down by turning the adjustment nut to the left.
To speed the Grandfather Clock up, move the pendulum disk up by turning the adjustment nut to the right. (See figure 17).

Day One
1. Select a time of day that will allow you to check your Grandfather Clock at the same time for at least six days.
2. Record time selected.
3. Check correct time.
4. Re-set the minute hand to the exact, correct time.

Day Two, Three, Four, Five, Six (If Necessary)
1. Check correct time.
2. Compare time shown on your Grandfather Clock with correct time. Is your Grandfather Clock fast or slow?
3. Turn the adjustment nut on the pendulum one complete
revolution for each half minute fast or slow per day. (24 hours).
4. Check correct time.
5. Re-set the minute hand to exact, correct time.


You may read more about how to keep your Pendulum Clock accurate here


13.Automatic Night-Time Silencing Option
Many Grandfather Clocks will offer a night time shutoff option. There are 3 options on this lever.
1) "Night On" - This will keep the chime striking 24 hours
2) "Night Off" - This position will turn off the chiming between 10:15PM and 7:00AM
3) "Strike" - This position will allow the movement to strike the hour without the Westminster melody if the other Westminster melody lever is turned to Silent.



Selecting the chime melody is accomplished by a selection lever on the Grandfather Clock dial. Some models play only the Westminster chime, while others give you a selection of three melodies.  Selection of the chime sequencing feature or one of the three chime melodies is done with the selector lever. If the dial states “Chime-Silent,” your Grandfather Clock has only the Westminster chime. If your Grandfather Clock has a triple chime movement, the chime lever identifies the melody choices. All floor Grandfather Clock movements have the Big Ben hour gong which will count the hour, on the hour. DO NOT attempt to move the chime selection lever while the Grandfather Clock is chiming. Doing so could damage the chime mechanism. See figure 18 for when it is safe to move the chime selection lever without damaging the movement.




As you face the Grandfather Clock, remove the top side panel, open the side door, or remove the back access panel. Look at the back side of the dial and locate the click spring. Put your finger at the tip of the click spring. Pull the click spring approximately 1/2” back away from the saw tooth moon dial and then release. (See figure 19). The click spring and dial should snap into proper alignment. If the click spring is in its proper location and you still feel resistance when trying to advance the moon dial DO NOT FORCE IT. If the moon dial still cannot be easily advanced, this indicates that the gears that automatically advance the moon dial are engaged. To correct this rotate the minute hand backwards three hours as describe in Step 5 of the setup operation.
You may read more about how to set your Moon Dial on your grandfather clock here


If the Grandfather Clock chimes more than one minute before or after the proper time, the
minute hand should be removed and adjusted.
CAUTION: When performing this operation be careful not to scratch the hand nut, hand or dial.
1. When the Grandfather Clock starts to chime, stop the pendulum and record the time.
2. Using pliers, carefully remove the small nut that holds the minute hand in place by turning the nut counter Clockwise while at the same time hold the minute hand with your fingers near the small nut.
3. Remove the hand from the hand shaft by grasping it with your fingers at the point where it attaches to the shaft. Pull the hand straight off. This hand is not screwed on and should come off easily. The minute hand has a small raised area on the back side directly around the shaft hole, this is the hand bushing. Using
pliers, grip the bushing firmly by its sides so that it cannot slip in the pliers. With your other hand, turn the Grandfather Clock hand forward or backward the distance necessary to chime at the correct time. (See figure 20).
4. Re-attach the hand to the shaft and turn the hand nut finger tight. Make sure the hand points to the correct location that you recorded in Step 1 plus any corrections you made in step 3. If the hand does not point to the correct mark, repeat steps 2 and 3.
5. Snug up the hand nut with the pliers. Do not over tighten.
6. Start pendulum.
7. Re-set the time by moving ONLY THE MINUTE HAND counter Clockwise (backwards) as described in Step 5 of the set-up operation.

EXAMPLE: Grandfather Clock chimes at 1:10 but should chime at 1:15.
Step 1: When Grandfather Clock chimes at 1:10 stop the pendulum and record the time of 1:10.
Step 2: Carefully remove the small nut.
Step 3: Remove the minute hand. Grip the bushing by its sides and turn the hand forward 5 minutes.
Step 4: Reattach the hand so it points to 1:15. Attach the hand nut finger tight.
Step:5 Snug up the hand nut.
Step 6: Start pendulum.
Step 7: Reset Grandfather Clock to current time.


If after several hours of operation your Grandfather Clock does not strike the correct hour, grasp the HOUR HAND ONLY and move it forward or backward to line up with the correct hour on the dial indicated by the number of times the hour strikes. Rotating this hand independently will not damage the Grandfather Clock. If the minute hand needs to be reset (to correct time), move the minute hand counter Clockwise (backwards) as described in Step 5: Setting Time.



1. Make sure that the selection lever is not in the “silent” position or halfway between two chime         melody positions?
2. Make sure that all the packing material is removed from the movement area.
3. Make sure that the weights are hanging in the correct location Check the label on the bottom of each weight to ensure proper location.
4. For models with nighttime silencing, make sure that the Grandfather Clock is not in the nighttime silence mode. (Reference: See AUTOMATIC NIGHTTIME SHUT OFF OPTION in General Information Section).
5. Check hammer adjustment and correct chime tone as necessary.
6. Move the chime selection lever to a different melody or to “silent”.
7. It is possible that the styrofoam blocks located above the cable pulleys are binding the cable. Carefully remove the styrofoam blocks by lifting the blocks straight up until they clear the cable pulley. Then gently push them back through the cables. Do not use tools to remove the blocks. Do not permit the cable to overlap on the drum.


DO NOT ADJUST CHIME HAMMERS, unless the chime tone is incorrect. Chime tone may be affected by the hammers resting on the chime rods or striking the rods off center. Although the hammers were set at the factory, it is possible for them to get out of adjustment. For most Grandfather Clocks, it will not be necessary to adjust chime hammers. CHIME ROD hammer arms are made of brass and can be safely bent. If necessary, adjust hammers so that they do not interfere with each other while moving or striking the chime rods. This is accomplished by bending the hammer arms slightly in the middle so that each hammer rests approximately 1/8” from each rod. (See figure 22). DO NOT bend the chime rods. Chime volume cannot be adjusted on a chime rod movement.



When the automatic nighttime shutoff feature is selected, and on some models the “silent” feature, the center weight will drop at a faster rate than the other weights.


for more detailed information, please read the following Articles:

Grandfather Clocks – Movement Diagram

My Grandfather Clock has Stopped, Can I Fix It?

Grandfather Clocks: Setting The Time

How To Regulate The Time Of Your Grandfather Clock

Setting Your Moon Dial On Grandfather Clocks

How to Set The Beat On Your Pendulum Clock

Adjusting the Pendulum on your Grandfather Clock

Moving your Grandfather Clock Forward One Hour in The Spring

Grandfather Clocks – Set your clocks an hour back – A How To Guide

Sligh Simon Willard Grandfather Clock Manual

Sligh Grandfather Clock Setup

Grandfather Clock Cabinet Care



This information is only for the clocks that we offer at this time and may or may not be appropriate for other brands and older clocks. We cannot be responsible for any user adjustments performed on any clocks outside of the clocks that we have sold. We also cannot properly answer questions on older clocks, clocks that we have not sold or brands we do not sell.


Copyright ©2020 The Clock Depot
Visit our Grandfather Clock Store - The Clock Depot - 3400 Westgate Dr - B11, Durham, NC 27707  
Call us toll free at 1-866-402-8714 - Retail Store Hours Mon-Fri 10:00-6:00 EST - Call for Saturday hours
Clocks at the lowest price allowed and free shipping on most selections

The Clock Depot is a factory authorized Howard Miller distributor for all Howard Miller clocks and grandfather clocks.

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